BREUER, Marcel

BREUER, Marcel
   Born in Hungary, Marcel Breuer first trained at the famous Bauhaus School of Design in Germany and worked with the German modernist architect Walter Gropius. Known as one of the founders of modernism in both architecture and furniture design, Breuer was initially interested in creating simple, geometric forms and modular shapes, while later in life he began to experiment with a softer, more expressive form of construction. In addition, this modernism characterizes his furniture, as seen in his famous 1925 Wassily Chair made with a curved tubular steel frame. Breuer also experimented with bent and formed plywood furniture.
   Breuer left Germany in the 1930s to flee Nazi persecution and settled first in London and then in Boston, where he taught students such as Philip Johnson at Harvard University. In Boston Breuer was reunited with his colleague Gropius, and together they built a few homes in the Boston area, thereby helping to establish modernist domestic architecture in the United States. In 1941, Breuer opened his own firm in New York City. His Breuer House II in New Canaan, Connecticut, built in 1948, is very daring in that its hillside construction integrates a stark white geometric structure made of cantilevered concrete and large glass windows into a more structurally sophisticated version of Le Corbusier's villa designs. Breuer's Geller House, built in Lawrence, Long Island, in 1945, is perhaps his most important home. Here he introduced what he called a "binuclear" house, in which an entrance foyer and hallway separate the living areas from the sleeping areas, a format used in most subsequent ranch houses built in the United States. Working with the famous Italian structural architect Pier Luigi Nervi, Breuer was finally able, through his commission for the UNESCO World Headquarters built in Paris in 1953, to translate his experimental concrete designs and structural sophistication into a large-scale public monument. Despite this large-scale commission, Breuer remains best known for his modernist domestic architecture.

Historical Dictionaries of Literature and the Arts. . 2008.

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  • BREUER, MARCEL — (1902–1981), architecture and furniture designer. Breuer was born in Pécs, a city in southwest Hungary. In 1920, after high school, he won a scholarship to the Vienna Academy of Fine Art. Disliking the Academy, he went to work for an architect… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Breuer, Marcel — ▪ Hungarian architect in full  Marcel Lajos Breuer  born May 21, 1902, Pécs, Hung. died July 1, 1981, New York City       architect and designer, one of the most influential exponents of the International Style; he was concerned with applying new …   Universalium

  • Breuer, Marcel — (1902 1981)    furniture designer; best known for his Breuer Chair. A native of Pecs, Hungary, he came to Weimar in 1920 to study design at the Bauhaus.* When the school moved to Dessau in 1925, he went along as the master in charge of the… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Breuer, Marcel — pseud. di Breuer, Lajos …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Breuer, Marcel (Lajos) — (21 may. 1902, Pécs, Hungría–1 jul. 1981, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.). Arquitecto y diseñador de muebles estadounidense de origen húngaro. Estudió y posteriormente enseñó en la Bauhaus (1920–28), donde en 1925 inventó la famosa silla de acero… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Breuer,Marcel Lajos — Breu·er (broiʹər), Marcel Lajos. 1902 1981. Hungarian born American architect and furniture designer who was associated with the Bauhaus in the 1920s. He is known for his chairs with tubular steel frames. * * * …   Universalium

  • Breuer, Marcel — ► (1902 81) Arquitecto húngaro, alumno y profesor de la Bauhaus. Ideó la casa binuclear (zona de noche, zona de día, separadas por el vestíbulo de entrada), y realizó el edificio de la UNESCO (París) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Breuer, Marcel —  (1902–1981) Hungarian born American architect and designer …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Breuer, Marcel (Lajos) — born May 21, 1902, Pécs, Hung. died July 1, 1981, New York, N.Y., U.S. Hungarian U.S. architect and furniture designer. He studied and then taught at the Bauhaus (1920–28), where in 1925 he invented the famous tubular steel chair. He moved to… …   Universalium

  • Breuer — Breuer, Marcel …   Enciclopedia Universal

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